Detailed Turabian Style Guide

You definitely have heard such terms as MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Many students begin getting nervous when they need to format their papers in one of the mentioned referencing styles. We can add one more referencing style to the presented list, i.e. Turabian. We will provide you with clear guidelines on how to format term papers, theses, and other academic works in this specific style. The Turabian style guide was created by Kate Turabian who worked at the University of Chicago.

Turabian Is Closely Related to Chicago

Before dealing with the Turabian style, you should know that it is based on the Chicago Style Manual. Thus, there is only a slight difference between these styles. One of the similar features is that a title should be italicized and the publication year should be located at the end of the citation.

Turabian is characterized by a specific location of references. It can be put either in the text (as in the MLA style) or footnotes/endnotes. No matter the chosen referencing style, you need to follow all the established rules to format your papers properly. Remember to add references to your work.

Unique Peculiarities

Turabian differs from Chicago in the way in-text citations, bibliography, endnotes and footnotes are organized.


The footnotes/endnotes should be arranged in the following manner:

Maria V. Taylor, A Manual on Producing Theses: Chicago Style for Academics, 5th ed. (Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago Press, 2010), xiii.

Check how the same citation should be formatted when appearing in the text:

Maria Taylor has been working as a researcher (Taylor 2010, xiii).

Look how the same reference is presented on the bibliography page:

Taylor, Maria V. A Manual on Producing Theses: Chicago Style for Academics. 5th ed. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago Press, 2010.

It should be noticed that the author’s name is not followed by a comma. Additionally, there are no brackets, and no page number is indicated. It means that the source mentioned on the bibliography page differs from the citation.

Journal Entries

The footnotes/endnotes should be arranged as indicated below:

Merry Christmas and Happy Thanksgiving Day, “Traditions, Customs and Holidays: Scientific Study of Cultural and Social Beliefs,” Journal of Social Development 12, no. 3 (April 2001): 523.

The in-text citation should be organized in the following manner:

(Christmas and Thanksgiving Day 2001, 523)

The entry in the bibliography section should be as follows:

Christmas, Merry and Thanksgiving Day, happy. “Traditions, Customs and Holidays: Scientific Study of Cultural and Social Beliefs.” Journal of Social Development 12, no. 3 (April 2001): 523 - 21.

Have you drawn your attention to the order of names, the commas replaced by periods, and a specific page number indicted on the bibliography page?


When writing papers, students often use different web resources. Down below, you will find an example of citing websites in footnotes/endnotes:

Sandra B. Chapman, “Planting,” The American Encyclopedia, (accessed November 8, 2011).

The in-text citation will look like the following one:


The bibliography item should be formatted in the following way:

Chapman, Sandra B. “Planting.” The American Encyclopedia. (accessed November 8, 2011).

Data about Turabian

There are many resources providing information about Turabian that can help you learn to organize different sources. Our aim was to give you good examples of citing different items in the bibliography in Turabian, so that you know how to do everything correctly.

Follow the Provided Tips

Note that you should always adhere to the guidelines given in the manuals on different styles. Thus, it will be easier for you to make your papers clear. By following the instructions given above, you will succeed in formatting papers in Turabian. If any problems occur, our editors are always willing to help you.