APA Dissertation Editing and the Rules

The purpose of this article is to explain the meaning of a style guide and justify its importance. We are not going to talk of all possible citation styles. Rather, our task is to explain how the citation style recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA) works in practice. We will also try to compare APA to other citation styles. As a student, you know how much time it takes to find relevant empirical and scientific research and how difficult it can be at times to use it in writing. At the same time, you assume full responsibility for the quality of your writing and you know that it may have lasting impacts on everyone involved. This is why it is so important to know how to use APA style guides in practice.

What a Style in APA dissertation editing Means?

A style, be it APA, MLA, or anything else, is a combination of rules and standards you will need to follow when writing your project. You will find a whole set of various citation and referencing rules, standards, and recommendations. Some styles were created specifically to guide business or scientific writing. Others apply in a variety of domains and disciplines. APA is one of the most universal and popular styles used in academic studies. You can use its rules and formatting requirements when dealing with your own essays, theses, dissertations, and research papers.

You will find some style guides being more informative than others. In fact, some style guide developers have been much more thorough than their colleagues in explaining the intricacies of effective formatting and style in academic writing. You may identify style guides that offer detailed recommendations regarding the title page, abstract, references lists, and so on. In the meantime, many other style guides will provide just some very basic information about how your paper should look like when it is finished.

This is like hiring a professional APA dissertation editor, who will work hard to correct all grammatical, spelling, and stylistic mistakes in your paper but will never ever guarantee the accuracy of the factual information used in your paper. In fact, this is beyond the scope of their professional obligations – editors do editing. They do not check the quality of the data you use in your dissertation. They can improve the structure and layout of your work, but they will never guarantee that you have met all requirements provided by your professor.

Style Guide Purpose

Following a correct and appropriate style in academic writing is one of the critical things for students. When you finish high school and go to college, most tutors expect you to possess outstanding academic skills and be ready to format and structure your papers accordingly. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, and dozens of students struggle to learn the basics of accurate formatting and style while they are already in a graduate course. You may hold different feelings about the rules and standards you are bound to follow, but one thing is clear: you cannot simply avoid using these rules in academic writing. In almost all cases, your tutor will provide you with the citation and formatting requirements you are to follow in your writing. Sometimes, they may leave the freedom of choice to you, but you will still need to ensure the consistency and accuracy of your formatting and style decisions. 

So, Why Do You Need Some Academic Style? 

Without a clear style, your readers will not be able to understand the meaning of your paper. When you follow the same academic style throughout your paper, your readers find it much easier to understand what you mean and what you intend to say. 

Without a clear style, you will never earn the highest grade for your paper. Proper formatting and style will affect a great percentage of your final grade. Do not ignore the importance of style, because even the best paper will not give you an A+ if it is not formatted properly. 

Without a clear style, you will not be able to avoid plagiarism. Students in colleges and universities are expected to use a variety of external sources when writing their papers. However, they must also be ready to credit other authors for their contribution to science. A properly formatted paper is that which incorporates numerous citations to avoid plagiarism. 

In fact, speaking of style, you will need to learn how to format and manage in-text citations. You will also have to create a list of references according to the standards and requirements set by your academic institution. All universities and colleges display zero tolerance to plagiarism. However, their citation and formatting policies may vary. Therefore it is always great to consult your academic books and recommendations regarding referencing styles and formatting. 

Where to Find the Recommendations for the Style? 

If you are graduate student, then most of the time you will not have any freedom to choose the style you want to use in your paper. Your supervisor will tell you if he wants you to use APA or any other style, and your task will be to find the latest guidelines related to that particular style. However, you should not forget that your supervisor is also bound by the policies and recommendations set by your academic institution. Therefore, if you have questions or doubts, you can either refer to official resources (e.g. the American Psychological Association) or seek assistance from your professor or the college/university writing center. 

The most popular guides for APA dissertation editing include:

  • APA published by the American Psychological Association. The book contains the latest standards of academic writing pertaining to the APA style guide. These are used in business, psychology, and humanity writing projects.
  • BLUEBOOK. The book provides explicit recommendations to inform the formatting and citation style in legal writing.
  • CHICAGO. This is the academic formatting and style guide used mostly in history courses. The book exposes students to two different versions of the style – one using in-text citations and another, using footnotes. If you use in-text citations for Chicago style writing, you will find many similarities with APA formatting.
  • HARVARD. This is just another type of author-date style, which bears numerous similarities with APA formatting. The peculiarity of Harvard referencing is that there is no single guide for referencing and formatting, so it is better to consult with your university if you must use this particular style in writing.
  • MLA. This academic style is used often in literature and humanities. It is both similar to and different from APA. Unlike APA, the list of references will be titled a "works cited" page. It is one of the easiest formatting and style frameworks available to students.
  • TURABIAN. This is a simplified version of the Chicago style that was already discussed in this blog. You will have to follow it when you are writing history papers. 

APA Style Guide: A Brief Insight for an APA Dissertation Editor 

Since the purpose of these recommendations is to teach you the basics of APA formatting and style, we will provide some useful information to make you familiar with it. You have already noticed that APA is used in the prevailing majority of scientific journal publications. The detailed recommendations for APA formatting and style can be found in the manual of style published by the American Psychological Association. The last time the APA style manual was edited was in 2010. 

Writing. In the APA manual of style, you will find concrete and understandable instructions on how to use numerals, how to use punctuation and capital letters, as well as how you should properly format your paragraphs. To be fair, the APA style manual is one of the best examples of how any other manual of style should look and work.

Formatting. You will also find detailed recommendations as to how to use the font, what font size is the most appropriate, what margins must be used in your paper, and where you should have your page numbers and headings placed.

Citing and Referencing. With the help of the APA manual of style, you will learn the details of the author-date formatting and style. You will see how you can design your list of references according to APA and what kinds of information you must include in each reference to meet APA requirements. 

You will not have any difficulty finding an APA manual of style. It is easily located in any online or physical bookstore. However, remember that online or electronic version of the book may differ from the published one. Take care and consult your supervisor to make sure that you are using the latest version of the APA style guide in academic writing. 

Some of the useful APA resources for APA dissertation editing:

  • APA Manual published by the American Psychological Association;
  • APA website;
  • APA blog. 

How and Why Different Manuals of Style May Differ 

As you find more differences in the style and formatting requirements across colleges and institutions, you will also find similar differences in how different style manuals present their recommendations. Consider the following things. 

Spelling. According to the recommendations developed by the American Psychological Association, you must spell out any numbers below 10. Moreover, every numerical at the beginning of your sentence must be also spelled in writing. Everything above 10 can be presented as numbers. For instance, "An average period between the initial HIV infection and AIDS is nine years, although some HIV-infected persons can live up to 20 years using antiretroviral drugs". 

Punctuation. In relation to punctuation, you will not find any conformity or unity among scholars. For example, many style guides discourage from using Oxford comma, whereas others emphasize its importance in writing. Moreover, you will find many differences in punctuation recommendations for British and American English. 

Spacing. According to the APA manual of style, you will need to use two spaces following the end of each sentence. Still, most universities and colleges insist on using only one space. As always, it is better to clarify these details with your supervisor or the writing center that belongs to your educational institution. 

Citing outside sources. Differences in formatting and styles lie mostly in the way in-text citations and end-paper references are formatted and presented to readers. For example, you will find many differences between MLA and APA formatting and citation recommendations. You will also note huge differences between in-text citations and footnote-based citation styles. Consult appropriate manuals to avoid mistakes. 

Do not forget that the purpose and intent of using a citation style is to provide your readers with a better understanding of the sources you have used in writing. Moreover, you must cite and reference your sources in ways that give your readers a possibility to locate them. In addition, you must cite and reference each source to avoid plagiarism in your papers. Otherwise, you may face penalties up to expulsion. 

Designing a List of References. You will note huge differences in how different style manuals and formatting books design the lists of references. For example, if you use MLA, this will be your Works Cited page. If you follow APA, you will have a References list. In case of Chicago or Turabian, it will be a Bibliography page. You may or may not need to include an URL for your online sources. Check with the manual for the style you plan to use in your work. Again, do not forget that any information you include or do not include on the References list may help or prevent your readers from finding a source they need. This is why you should be very accurate and detailed with your list of references. You must also use the latest and most credible resources that match the requirements and standards of quality writing in graduate courses. 

APA Style Guide versus a University Dissertation Manual in Dissertation Editing 

The APA style guide was initially designed to inform the activities and decisions made by the authors of journal articles and research studies. It was not developed for dissertation writers. Nor was it published for any other longer academic works. No one says that APA cannot be used in dissertation writing, but the recommendations provided in the APA manual of style may differ from the ones included in your university dissertation handbook. Check both resources to avoid losing grade points when you submit your dissertation. Below are just some of the most notable differences between APA formatting and dissertation formatting and style:

  • According to APA, you will have to place page numbers in the upper right corner of each page. However, many academic institutions expect that you will put page numbers at the center of the bottom on each page. You may also note different requirements concerning pagination of the title and cover pages. Sometimes, universities and colleges ask their students not to include any page numbers on the title page of their dissertations.
  • Margins also matter. According to the APA style guide, you will need to use one-inch margins on all sides. However, your supervisor may ask you to use a larger left margin for binding purposes.
  • According to APA, you will need to follow double-spacing throughout the entire paper. Your tables, figures, and appendices – all will need to be double-spaced. Yet, many institutions ask their students to write single-spaced papers. Moreover, they also expect that students will use footnotes instead of in-text citations even if they keep using APA.
  • The APA style manual requires that all quotations larger than 40 words be blocked and double-spaced. In contrast, your supervisor may ask you to use single-spacing for block quotations.
  • APA manual recommendations describe several different levels of headings, but your supervisor may be against all headings at all. 

The whole point about these differences is that you should be ready to consult your supervisor to avoid misunderstanding. You will have to keep in mind the requirements and standards published by your academic institution. Although APA is the most popular and widely accepted style of writing, it is still better to consult multiple sources so that you do not have to rewrite your paper or dissertation from scratch. You do not want to do the double job, do you? This is why be attentive and accurate with the information you have regarding referencing and formatting. 

Institutional recommendations are more important than the APA style guide. Even though APA is a widely recognized standard for academic writing, your institutional requirements are still the primary source of information in dissertation writing. Following the formatting and citation requirements of your college or university is a must. If there no such recommendations, then you are most welcome to consult the APA manual of style. 

Most of the time, universities and colleges provide their citation and formatting recommendations for students for free. However, if you must follow APA in dissertation writing, then you will have to purchase a copy of the manual in a bookstore. Then you will be able to use it in other projects as well. At times, your tutors may want you to cite page numbers where you have found formatting and referencing information for your paper. 

What about an APA editor? 

It is natural that you place so much expectation on your APA editor. The function and mission of any professional editor is to edit, proofread, and refine the original work. However, editors do not limit themselves to dealing with grammar, spelling, formatting and style. If you hire an APA editor for your dissertation, expect the following:

  • The editor will see if your paper is compliant with the institutional guidelines regarding formatting and style;
  • The editor will also check if heading levels have been used accurately and correctly;
  • The editor will review and edit your table contents;
  • The editor will check if all figures, tables, and pictures were cited and referenced appropriately;
  • The editor will add headings to divide your paper into more segments;
  • The editor will bring several sections together if they refer to the same issue;
  • The editor will check if page numbers were put correctly and in place;
  • The editor will see if spacing is consistent throughout the entire paper;
  • The editor will manage your block and in-text citations according to the institutional guidelines; and so on. 

What if I Decide to Get an APA dissertation editor for Myself? 

Whether or not you need an APA editor depends on many factors. Try to answer some of the following questions before you make the final decision:

  • What working style do you usually follow?
  • Are you focused on details or simply create a general picture of your work?
  • Can you imagine someone else editing and reviewing your paper? 

A simple fact is that the decision to get or not to get an editor depends mostly on your character. Some people simply reject the very idea of having someone delve into their academic writing. In the meantime, others are open to suggestions and willing to see a professional editor manage the details of their academic projects. You must first understand what you want and how you want that to be accomplished. Then you will be able to find a perfect editor for your dissertation or finish it on your own. 

What about Dissertation Editing Time?

 Now review the following questions:

  • Do you have enough time to edit your paper?
  • Do you have enough time to explore the institutional requirements for formatting and style?
  • Do you think that you are better at researching than editing your paper? 

If you have plenty of time and can devote yourself to editing and writing, then you are in the best position to edit your paper without anyone's help. However, if you are overloaded at work and in your university, it is the right time to hire a qualified APA editor. 

What about Your Institutional Writing Center and Your Dissertation Supervisor?

 Do you have an advisory team who is helping you to format and reference your dissertation project correctly?

  • Do you have a supervisor who is eager to tell you when you are heading in the wrong direction?
  • Is the feedback provided informative enough to help you correct your own mistakes? 

At times, you will find yourself in a situation when you cannot understand what your supervisor wants from you. In this situation, it is better to find a professional editor. You do not want to wait until the last moment when you no longer have time to improve your paper. Get your editor now to fix all formatting problems before they become a disaster. 

How we do it: Dissertation process – editing and writing with an advanced APA dissertation editor 

We at GreatDissertation.com follow a comprehensive editing process for each dissertation:

  1. You forward a copy of your dissertation draft to us.
  2. We take a look at your version of the paper and contact you back with our estimation of the cost and time. Do not try to engage with unprofessional services that won't even look into your paper.
  3. If you agree with the cost offered, we will send you an invoice, and you will be able to process your payment via PayPal or using your credit card.
  4. Once we receive the payment, we will sit down to revise your dissertation. You will receive the first 10,000 words edited by us within 48 hours. We will wait for your feedback to keep working on your project.
  5. Once we are done with editing, one of our senior editors will check everything once again and refine your dissertation to make it perfect. Then you will receive the finished product by email. You will also be able to see every single change we make in your dissertation project.
  6. You are most welcome to contact our editors if you have any questions. 

We have enough editors to finish 10,000 words during one day. From our experience, there is no sense doing more, because heavy workloads and editors' fatigue will also affect the quality of your academic results. Moreover, it is no use ordering fast editing services. Do not try to maximize your revenues – you need the editing work done thoroughly, professionally, and in a quality manner. 

Thus, if you are ready to launch the whole project, just email your draft dissertation to us, and we will contact you with our price and time estimates. Please, use our code to earn a 10% discount on our editing services. We just want you to enjoy the professionalism of our talented editors! 

Table 1. HOW STYLES AND FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS DIFFER

 

APA

Chicago/Turabian 
(author-date style)

MLA

Harvard*

Bluebook

One author

Allison (2016)

(Allison, 2016)

"quote" (Allison, 2016, p. 12)

Allison (2016)

(Allison 2016)

"quote" (Allison 2016, p. 12)

Allison (12)

(Allison 12)

Allison (2016)

(Allison 2016)

quote" (Allison 2016, p. 12)

 See 418 U.S. at 307 (1974) to understand how Bluebook works in legal writing.

Two authors

Allison and Howard (2016)

(Allison & Howard, 2016)

"quote" (Allison & Howard, p. 12)

Allison and Howard (2016)

(Allison and Howard, 2016)

"quote" (Allison and Howard 2016, 12)

Allison and Howard (12)

(Allison and Howard 12)

Allison and Howard (2016)

(Allison and Howard 2016)

"quote" (Allison and Howard 2016 p. 12)

See J. Allison and M. Howard, Don't Be Afraid of Change, 12-18 (1833).

Multiple authors

Allison, Howard and Zhang (2016)

(Allison, Howard, & Zhang, 2016)

"quote" (Allison, Howard, & Zhang, 2016, p. 12)

After the first citation, use(Allison et al., 2016, p. 12)

Allison, Howard, and Zhang (2016)

(Allison, Howard and Zhang 2016)

"quote" (Allison, Howard, and Zhang, p.12)

For more than four authors, use(Allison et al., 2016, p. 12)

Allison, Howard and Zhang (12)

(Allison, Howard, and Zhang 12)

Allison, Howard and Zhang (2016)

(Allison, Howard, and Zhang 2016)

"quote" (Allison, Howard, and Zhang 2016, p. 12)

For more than four authors, "quote" (Allison et al. 2016. p. 12)

See H. Roger et al., The Navy 15-22 (2002).

Table 2. HOW YOU SHOULD FRAME YOUR REFERENCES DEPENDING ON FORMATTING AND STYLE PREFERENCES

APA

REFERENCES:

Marquis, B.L. (2009). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

CMS/Turabian-author date format

REFERENCES:

Marquis, Bessie L. 2009. Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

CMS/Turabian-footnote/endnote format

Footnote/endnote:

1Bessie L. Marquis. Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing (Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009), 11-12.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Marquis, Bessie L. Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

MLA

WORKS CITED:

Marquis, Bessie L. Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

Harvard*

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Marquis, BL 1989, Leadership roles and management functions in nursing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

Bluebook

Footnote/endnote:

1Bessie L. Marquis. Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing 11 (2009).

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Bessie L. Marquis, Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2009).

GreatDissertation.com knows why tutors return your papers for further revision and editing. We are here to help you address and improve the following aspects of your work:

  • Grammar: punctuation, grammar, spelling, tense and verb agreement;
  • Style: wordiness, redundancy, brevity and conciseness, active and passive voice
  • Tone: consistency of the subject matter, use of culturally sensitive language
  • Audience: appropriate language considering the target audience
  • Organization: logic, intent, sentence and paragraph structure, layout and formatting
  • Citation and style: in-text citations, references
  • Readability, logic, and flow of the paper

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